Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan in Western India.In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names, such as Gomanchala, Gopakapattana, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Govem, and Gomantak.Goa's history goes back 20,000–30,000 years.
Upper Paleolithic or Mesolithic rock art engravings have been found on the bank of the river Kushavati at Usgalimal.Early Goan society underwent radical change when Indo-Aryan and Dravidian migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base of early Goan culture.In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa.In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire.In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yousuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya.In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji from Velha Goa.After India gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army began military operations with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, Daman, and Diu into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India.