Gujarat is a state in Western India, sometimes referred to as the "Jewel of Western India". The name Gujarat is derived from 'Gujaratta' or 'Gujartra' that is the land protected by or ruled by Gujars.
The word 'Gujarat' gained currency during Chalukya period (942 - 1299 A.D). Before this period parts of Gujarat were known as Anarta, Lata and Surastra.The pre-history of Gujarat begins with the first appearance of the early man on banks of Sabarmati, Mahi, Orsang, Narmada, Bhadar, Vadi, Thebi, etc. during the Pleistocene age, which is also called Old Stone Age.The real political history of Gujarat begins with the establishment of Mauryan rule in Gujarat.Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the, sway of Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, there was Greek incursion into Gujarat led by Demetrious.For nearly 400 years from the start of the first century, Saka rulers played a prominent part in Gujarat's history weather beaten rock at Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler Rudradaman (100 A.D) of Saks Straps known as Kashatraps.The Kashatraps dynasty was replaced by Gupta reign. Zaffar Shah, a viceroy of Delhi for Gujarat was responsible for starting the Sultanate in Gujarat.The decline of the Sultanate started with the assassination of Skinder Shah.The Peshawas had established their sovereignty over Gujarat including Saurashtra and administered the same through their representatives.Gujarat has played a key role in the freedom struggle especially after Mahatma Gandhi's taking, over of the leadership of the freedom movement.